NDB Board of Directors meets in Shanghai, approves three projects with loans aggregating to USD 937 million

On December 2, 2019, the 22nd Meeting of the Board of Directors of the New Development Bank (NDB) was held in Shanghai, China.

The Board approved three projects with loans aggregating to approximately USD 937 million, bringing the NDB’s portfolio to 49 projects with loans aggregating to USD 13.7 billion.

Hubei Huangshi Modern Tram Project

The NDB will provide a loan of RMB 2.76 billion (approx. USD 400 million) to the People’s Republic of China for Huangshi Modern Tram Project. It will address urban transport connectivity problems in Huangshi, a municipality in the southeastern part of Hubei Province, through the construction of a modern tram network with a total length of 27.33 km. The components of the Project include: i) laying of tracks, construction of stations and installation of associated facilities for the tram network; ii) procurement of rolling stock; and (iii) consultancy support for commissioning, preparation of operations and maintenance plan, capacity building and project management.

Manipur Water Supply Project

The NDB will provide a loan of USD 312 million to the Republic of India for Manipur Water Supply Project. It will address serious challenges in clean drinking water supply in Manipur, a small mountainous state in the northeastern region of India, through construction and upgrade of drinking water supply infrastructure. The components of the Project include construction and upgrade of drinking water supply systems in: i) Imphal Planning Area, the capital city of Manipur; ii) additional 25 towns; and iii) 1,731 rural habitations.

Indore Metro Rail Project

The NDB will provide a loan of USD 225 million to the Republic of India for Indore Metro Rail Project. The Project is to implement a metro line of approximately 31 km in the city of Indore. The Project will provide mass rapid transit capacity for the city’s major mobility corridors, thereby contributing to local economic development and an improved urban environment by reducing traffic congestion and pollution.

The Board also approved technical assistance totaling to USD 0.7 million for two projects from India and Russia.

Mizoram Tuirini Small Hydro Project

The NDB will provide technical assistance of USD 300,000 to the Republic of India for Mizoram Tuirini Small Hydro Project. The NDB’s technical assistance will provide consulting services aimed at preparing the Mizoram Tuirini Small Hydro Project. The project envisages construction of a small hydropower plant with an installed capacity of 24 MW in the state of Mizoram, to increase installed power generation capacity of Mizoram.

Krasnodar Cable Car Project

The Bank will provide technical assistance of USD 400,000 to the Russian Federation for Krasnodar Cable Car Project. The NDB’s technical assistance will provide consulting services aimed at preparing the Krasnodar Cable Car Project up to the stage when it can be considered by external financiers to seek approval for its financing. The project envisages the construction of a cable car network to be used as an alternative public transportation modality in Krasnodar city, Russia to relieve traffic congestion.

It is the first time that the NDB Board of Directors approved the provision of technical assistance through the Bank’s Project Preparation Fund (PPF), a multi-donor fund open to contributions by all the Bank’s members. The PPF’s objective is to support preparation of bankable projects to facilitate borrowing member countries to raise funds for such projects from the NDB or other multilateral development banks.

During the Meeting, an update on the NDB project pipeline and status of approved projects was provided to the Board. The Board also discussed matters pertaining to equity investments, funding programme, treasury related matters, membership expansion, review of NDB’s General Strategy: 2017-2021 and development impact of the Bank’s operations.

On December 2, 2019, the 13th Meeting of the Audit, Risk and Compliance Committee (ARC) of the New Development Bank was held in Shanghai. The ARC reviewed Quarterly Audited Financial Statements for the New Development Bank and the Project Preparation Fund of the NDB for the period ended September 30, 2019. The ARC also discussed matters pertaining to risk, internal audit and compliance.

The 8th Meeting of the Budget, Human Resources and Compensation Committee (BHRC) of the New Development Bank was held on December 2, 2019.  The Committee considered the Budget Utilisation Report for CY2019 and the Proposed budget for CY2020 as well as the three Year Budget for 2020-2022. The Committee also discussed matter pertaining to recruitment and diversity.

Background Information

The NDB was established by Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa to mobilize resources for infrastructure and sustainable development projects in BRICS and other emerging economies and developing countries, complementing the existing efforts of multilateral and regional financial institutions for global growth and development. To fulfill its purpose, the NDB will support public or private projects through loans, guarantees, equity participation and other financial instruments. According to the NDB’s General Strategy, sustainable infrastructure development is at the core of the Bank’s operational strategy for 2017-2021. The NDB received AA+ long-term issuer credit ratings from S&P and Fitch and AAA foreign currency long-term issuer rating from Japan Credit Rating Agency (JCR).

Could this be the SME election? Small businesses employ 16million – over a third of the electorate

SME experts – IW Capital and the UKBAA – discuss the importance of SME success to the next Government

Today will see the three main party leaders set out their plans to secure the support of the UK’s business leaders at the CBI conference. Boris Johnson is set to make the case for getting Brexit done, while Jo Swinson is to claim that the Lib Dems are the “natural party of business”. Labour is to focus on apprenticeships and training for the business community.

When setting out their stall in business policy, one area that is set to have a huge impact is the support promised for small and medium enterprises across the UK. The SME community employs 16.6million of the roughly 45million eligible voters in the UK and contributes £2.2trillion (52%) to the economy. If the next Government can make it clear that they are the party to help this sector of business to grow and thrive they could see significant support from one of the biggest sections of voters to exist in the UK.

Luke Davis – CEO of SME investment house IW Capital says:

“The importance of the SME sector is hard to overstate, and in the context of the upcoming election will be hugely important to the future economy. With over a third of the electorate employed by small businesses this could really be a swing vote of society – if this section of the workforce feels more confident in their job security and business growth with one party, it will almost undoubtedly affect voting decisions.

“For SMEs to feel confident in their capacity to grow, employ more people and expand they need to trust that the incoming Government is going to look after them and deliver security. The range of innovative and agile firms in the space currently is reflective of the entrepreneurial spirit of the UK which if fostered correctly could kick-start the wider economy into a period of growth.”

Jenny Tooth, CEO of the UK Business Angels Association, has commented:

“Not only is it the employees of SMEs that are keeping a keen eye on this election, but also the investors involved within the SME arena. With Britain’s impending exit from the European Union, the loss of the Jeremie fund and Horizon 2020 are bound to leave regional SMEs proactively seeking private investment more fervently. However, the mindset of investors could change post-Brexit. Investors will be looking for greater longevity when assessing the potential of a business, and will now look to how scalable businesses are in terms of their international reach. The forthcoming election and the pledges that the parties sell to businesses needs to reassure investors that the environment they delve into is a sustainable one.”

The Dutch Fund for Climate and Development open for business

The Hague, November 15, 2019 – The Dutch Fund for Climate and Development (DFCD) has officially been launched in the presence of government officials, NGOs, investors, politicians and other interested parties. In May of this year, the DFCD was awarded to the consortium of Dutch development bank FMO, SNV Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV), World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-NL) and Climate Fund Managers (CFM). “Today’s launch means that the DFCD is officially open for business,” said Linda Broekhuizen, Chief Investment Officer at FMO. “The consortium is keen to connect with innovative entrepreneurs with climate-related businesses and with private investors keen to mobilize much-needed funding from the private sector to join us in our mission to create a more climate-resilient world.”

Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face today. It is already affecting people and nature across the globe, with developing countries being most impacted. “The poorest communities are the most vulnerable to climate change. Poor farmers and others at the bottom of the pyramid suffer and lose their livelihoods even with small changes in rainfall patterns or temperature”, as Meike van Ginneken, Chief Executive Officer at SNV explained.

There is an urgent need for investment to enable vulnerable communities and ecosystems to adapt to climate change. Carola van Rijnsoever, Director of Inclusive Green Growth, and Ambassador for Sustainable Development, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, said: „The challenge we face to help communities adapt to and mitigate the effects of climate change is enormous, and the case for action is incredibly clear. We cannot do this with governments alone. We need all stakeholders to be strong enough to confront this challenge. The set-up of this consortium in which finance and NGOs come together, is unique and uniquely positioned to do this.“ The government of The Netherlands has committed to addressing this need through the DFCD, making EUR 160 million available in the period 2019-2022 for climate adaptation and mitigation, of which at least 50% is earmarked for climate adaptation projects.

DFCD is a direct response to the increasing demand for climate adaptation projects that have to date suffered from a lack of funding compared with mitigation efforts. Linda Broekhuizen adds: “In 2018, USD 612 billion was invested in climate mitigation which is important and much needed. In contrast however, only 5%, USD 30 billion, was invested in adaptation. Adaptation may have to be USD 180 billion a year if the 2030 goal is to reach the USD 1.7 trillion as required according to the most recent report of the Global Commission on Adaptation.”

To help bridge this funding gap the DFCD aims to mobilize upwards of EUR 500 million from private sector investors. Andrew Johnstone, Chief Executive Officer of Climate Fund Managers adds: “The opportunities are there. Take water for example: 80% of the world’s wastewater enters rivers and oceans untreated and by 2025, half of the world’s population will be living in water stressed areas. Neither the private nor the public sector is doing enough, but together the investment potential is enormous, as is the impact to be delivered.”

This partnership of NGOs and financiers seeks to develop and finance sustainable private sector solutions to enhance resilience to the effects of climate change. These projects will boost the health of freshwater, forest, agricultural and ocean ecosystems, and improve water management.

“The consortium takes a landscape approach through investing in projects which are planned in an inclusive manner, and build on a solid understanding of the landscape, ecosystems and communities. In this way these projects will contribute to healthier ecosystems,” said Kirsten Schuijt, Chief Executive Officer of WWF-NL. “New and incredibly exciting in this consortium is that there is early-stage funding available to convert adaptation opportunities into bankable projects.” 

WWF and SNV take on the key role of developing climate-relevant projects from an early-stage idea to a bankable business case. Climate Fund Managers and FMO provide investment capital, delivering projects to full operations. This combination of early-stage involvement with full life-cycle funding will ensure lasting, long-term impact that contributes to the Paris Agreement and the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Interested parties can contact the DFCD through: www.thedfcd.com.

The Dutch Fund for Climate and Development open for business
In picture from left to right the DFCD partners at the official launch event in The Hague: Andrew Johnstone, CEO of Climate Fund Managers, Kirsten Schuijt, CEO of WWF-NL, Linda Broekhuizen, CIO of FMO, Albert Bokkestijn, project manger DFCD at SNV, Carola van Rijnsoever, Director of Inclusive Green Growth, and Ambassador for Sustainable Development, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

In picture from left to right the DFCD partners at the official launch event in The Hague: Andrew Johnstone, CEO of Climate Fund Managers, Kirsten Schuijt, CEO of WWF-NL, Linda Broekhuizen, CIO of FMO, Albert Bokkestijn, project manger DFCD at SNV, Carola van Rijnsoever, Director Inclusive Green Growth, and Ambassador Sustainable Development, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Flarin Holdings completes first round of fundraising for revolutionary drug

Investment from IW Capital to drive rapid commercialisation of world’s first lipid formulated ibuprofen

Flarin Holdings Limited today announces the completion of its first round of fund-raising by IW Capital. Flarin Holdings was recently demerged from Infirst Healthcare Limited in order to provide greater focus on the rapid commercialisation of Flarin.

Flarin is a unique and patent protected lipid formulated ibuprofen which at a dose of 1200 mg/day has shown to be as effective as 2400mg/day of standard liquid ibuprofen capsules in patients with acute joint pain 1. Flarin’s unique lipid formulation also helps to shield the stomach from damage 2.

“The very positive response we have had from presenting Flarin to new investors has given us great confidence in taking Flarin to the next stage of its commercial development,” says Andrew Macmillen, Managing Director. “These new funds give Flarin greater ability to increase investment in marketing in the UK as well as building a network of distributors and licensing partners in other countries.” 

Luke Davis, IW Capital chief executive, said:

“We are hugely excited to be involved with this innovative pharmaceutical product at an early stage in its commercial development. It is also key to be able to work with such an experienced management team in the pharmaceutical and healthcare arena.

“Our research shows that around 20% of private investors are looking to invest within Pharma and Biotech while half of this group is put off by Big Pharma. With this in mind we were not surprised that the initial investment target for Flarin was over-subscribed by IW capital’s network of net-worth individuals and independent financial advisors.

There is a fantastic exit opportunity here with the product already fully developed and on sale in UK pharmacies, meaning there is already an established sales infrastructure in place.”

If you have any questions about the release or would like to speak to Luke please don’t hesitate to get in touch.

About Flarin Holdings 
Flarin Holdings is a new company demerged from Infirst Healthcare Limited in order to focus on commercialising Flarin’s unique lipid formulation of ibuprofen.

About Flarin Lipid Formulation Technology
Flarin is a unique and patent protected lipid formulated ibuprofen which at a dose of 1200 mg/day has shown to be as effective as 2400mg/day of standard liquid ibuprofen capsules in patients with acute joint pain1. Flarin’s unique lipid formulation also helps to shield the stomach from damage2.

About IW Capital
IW Capital is a leading SME investment provider specialising in private equity and debt financing, having facilitated well over c.£100m in development capital investment in UK companies.

Bierma- Zeinstra SMA, Conaghan PG, Brew J et al. Osteoarthr Cartil:  2017 25; 12: 1942-1951 Open Access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2017.09.002 Accessed at: http://www.oarsijournal.com/article/S1063-4584(17)31197-4/fulltext
2 Data on file, Infirst Healthcare Limited.

www.flarin.co.uk
https://www.linkedin.com/company/flarin/

Desentum will run a clinical trial on its allergy vaccine this winter supported by 4 M€ of new investments

Finnish biopharmaceutical company Desentum is about to initiate a first-in-human clinical trial with its birch pollen hypoallergen designed to improve immunotherapeutic treatment of birch pollen allergy. In a funding round arranged by Springvest Oy, the company raised 4 million euros that it intends to use for funding clinical trials, developing new hypoallergens and advancing business goals.

Desentum develops novel type of immunotherapeutic hypoallergens, so called allergy vaccines. The hypoallergens are biotechnologically produced, modified allergen proteins aimed for improving the efficiency of allergen immunotherapy while also reducing the time required for treatment. The lead product candidate, birch pollen hypoallergen DM-101 (Bet v 1 dm), has produced good results in preclinical tests assessing allergenicity and immunogenicity, and is now advancing to clinical phase.

In clinical trials, the safety and efficacy of a new medicinal product is demonstrated in volunteer study subjects. The primary objective of Desentum’s first clinical trial is to confirm the safety of DM-101, but information about the immunological response generated by the hypoallergen is also collected.

“For the past couple of years, we have worked together with international allergen immunotherapy experts to prepare for the clinical studies. The first study plan was submitted for regulatory and ethics evaluation in the summer of 2019. The study will be performed in Finland and the dosing is scheduled to be completed before 2020 birch pollen season”, explains Pekka Mattila, CEO of Desentum.

To strengthen the company’s financial position, Desentum initiated a funding round in September. It was carried out by a Finnish investment service company Springvest Oy. The public offering was fully subscribed, which translates to approximately 4 million euros of collected capital. Desentum plans on using the majority of the proceeds for funding early-stage clinical trials. The remaining funds will be used for the research and development of new hypoallergens as well as for partnering activities to support late-stage clinical trials and market access.

“We are very happy with the results of the public offering. The collected capital enables us to focus on our primary goal, which is testing the novel immunotherapeutic allergy treatment and bringing it to the market. Today, allergy affects a huge number of people, and I believe that in addition to the expectation of financial return, many investors also hope that our technology could solve a health problem that impacts the life of their family or friends”, says Mattila and continues: “This is our target as well. We have started by looking at birch pollen allergy, but our platform can be used for producing hypoallergens from other allergens, too. We are already developing similar products to address peanut, grass pollen, dog and horse allergies.”

Immunotherapy in allergy treatment

Allergy is one of the most common chronic conditions in Europe. Today, more than 150 million Europeans suffer from allergic diseases. For one in five patients the condition is severe enough to create a constant threat of a severe allergic reaction or an asthma attack. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical immunology (EAACI) predicts that by 2025 allergy will affect half the population in Europe. Allergies cause social and economic burden such as health care costs, missed school and work days and impact on the daily lives of the patients.

Allergies are generally managed by medication that alleviates the symptoms. The most common medications are antihistamines and corticosteroids. Immunotherapy is the only treatment currently known that affects the mechanism of allergy. It re-educates the immune system to tolerate the allergen, decreasing the need for medication. Immunotherapy can be administered as injections or sublingual tablets or drops, and the treatment usually takes a few years. The novel immunotherapeutic products that are under development aim for speeding up the treatment as well as improving the safety, efficacy and convenience.

About Desentum Oy: Desentum is a biopharmaceutical company based in Espoo, Finland. It is specialized in developing a novel type of allergen immunotherapy based on switching the immune system’s response to allergens from hypersensitivity to tolerance by utilizing modified hypoallergens. Desentum, founded in 2011, is a spin-off company from VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. In 2013 VTT received an EARTO (European Association of Research and Technology Organisations) Innovation Prize for the work behind the immunotherapeutic products. In 2018, Desentum was awarded a 1,9 M€ grant from the highly competitive Horizon 2020 SME instrument for the first-in-human clinical trial and business development.

Contact:

Pekka Mattila, CEO
Desentum Oy
Tel. +358-500-512934
[email protected]
www.desentum.com

Business Risks – Threats that nullify the company’s ability to meet its financial goals

The company has always exposed to uncertainties that are called business risks. They may affect a firm’s aim to gain its goals. The danger of loss is in the form of machinery breakdown, strikes, change of trends, etc.

Business risks refer to the threat to the company's ability to meet its financial goals. It indicates the risk of uncertainty or loss in profit and the risk of some eventuality in the future, which can make a business fail.

Factors Causing Business Risks

Business risks result in less profit or even loss. The factors that lead to risks can be Internal or External.

  1. Internal Business Risks: risks that arise due to some event happening within a firm are internal risks. However, the firm can control them. Internal risks occur by:
  • Technological factors
  • Human factors
  • Physical factors
  • Operational factors

Examples: New technology, fire, cost-cutting, etc.

  1. External Business Risks: External risks occur by any event happening outside the firm. However, the firm’s management cannot control them. The factors that lead to external risks are:
  • Natural factors
  • Economic factors
  • Political factors

Examples: Floods, price pressure, riots, etc.

Types of Business Risks

Risks have divided into five kinds:

  1. Strategic Risk: The risks associated with business operations are strategic risks. They arise when the business plans fail. Poor business decisions lead to failure, e.g., marketing risk, project risk, competitive risk, etc.
  2. Financial Risks: These risks related to business events and finance. It adds to shareholders by debt financing, along with equity.

For example, there can be losses by movement in stock prices, interest rates, etc.

  1. Operational Risks: These risks linked with official procedures of a business. There is a failure to connect to internal policies.

For example, some events like frauds, computer hacking, etc. affect a company’s daily activities

  1. Compliance Risks: Such risks occur by state rules and commands. When the company fails to follow laws, it has to face legal penalties. These risks ensure that the firm runs justly.

For example, corrupt practices, social responsibility, etc.

  1. Reputation Risks: The negative publicity of a firm/product leads to this risk. There is a chance that a company’s name can damage.

For example, a mobile company issues a phone that breaks easily. But then it markets a new and better model.

Business risks refer to the threat to the company's ability to meet its financial goals. It indicates the risk of uncertainty or loss in profit and the risk of some eventuality in the future, which can make a business fail.

Ways to Manage Business Risks

You can plan to manage the exposure of risks.

  • Mitigate the risk: You need to keep a contingency plan. In case if the risk materializes, you must have a second plan to follow.
  • Avoid the risk: It’s better to avoid than to bear a loss. Sometimes the launch of a product leads to affect the company financially. You can postpone it until your company stabilizes.
  • Transfer the risk: You can pass financial risks to someone else. For instance, fire insurance is the best example of it.
  • Accept the risk: If the risks are likely to happen, you can opt for small damage. So, examine the other option and make the right decision to accept the risk.

Business risks lead to uncertainties, but a good businessman takes them as a challenge. Risks lead to new clients and more sales. You can, however, manage to minimize the worst to happen.

See also about Financial Riska Management

Trade War: Vehicle Companies Are Feeling the Pinch in Modern Europe

Car manufacture on the continent riddled with looming trade war seems headed for a dead-end.

Remember the good old days when the biggest challenges the European car industry faced were the oil crisis, the rise of Japanese carmakers, and disgruntled unions? Today, the car industry is fighting for its very survival as the mobility sector is transformed by new technologies.

Car manufacture on the continent riddled with looming trade war seems headed for a dead-end.

One can forgive European carmakers for being a bit distracted by shorter-term concerns like the threat of US tariffs, slumping Chinese demand, and stricter emission standards.

Europe and its car industry are already dealing with US steel and aluminium tariffs imposed in 2018 as part of the trade war. In May 2019, the US Department of Commerce announced that foreign cars and car parts were a threat to US national security. Tariffs of up to 25 percent could be imposed, with a decision to be made within 180 days of the announcement. Negotiations behind closed doors must be frantic. EU governments are sit-ting down to agree on a unified, post-European elections approach. German car executives have already been to the US to try to reason with President Donald Trump.

Escalating trade war that involves vehicle companies

An escalating trade war would be disastrous not just because of the direct impact on demand, but also because the European car industry is a global supply chain. Cars and parts are made around the world and assembled in various countries. Tariffs will drive up costs, and may cause carmakers to relocate their production centres.

Brexit is a similar problem but on a smaller scale — and with less certainty. Already several carmakers have closed or reduced production in Britain. Honda is closing its Swindon plant, Nissan is moving some future production back to Japan, and even Dyson has moved its electric car subsidiary to Singapore.

European car makers are also reeling from a slump in car sales in China, recording 11 months of de-creasing sales by this May. Many carmakers are desperate for an improvement in the second half of the year, but there is little optimism for a quick turnaround. China became the biggest car market in 2010, and in 2017 had 35 percent of the passenger car market; the EU was the next-biggest at 21 percent, with the US following at nine percent. The slump is a major cause for concern.

To take advantage of the growing market and to meet Chinese government requirements, many Europe-an carmakers have set-up production in China, mostly with joint ventures. Volkswagen produces close to 40 percent of its total production in China, Peugeot (PSA) close to 20 percent.

European carmakers have bet big on China trying to navigate the trade war — and now they are facing the costly prospect of stricter emission regulations as well. In the wake of the 2015 “Dieselgate” scandal, European policymakers are determined to cut emissions from motor vehicles. They are proposing a 15 percent cut in average CO2 emissions for cars produced in Europe by 2025, and 35 percent by 2030. Many cities have announced future bans and restrictions on diesel vehicles, including Paris, Hamburg, Berlin, and London. This is forcing a costly transition on European carmakers — but in forcing them from diesel to electric, it may be a strategic blessing in disguise.

All these pressing concerns represent serious challenges, but European carmakers must also look ahead to other existential challenges.

Vehicle companies in 2030

By 2030, 30 percent of a car’s value will be in its software, but Europe is lacking the relevant expertise. The biggest software advances are being made in Autonomous Vehicles (AV), followed by increased connectivity. Self-driving cars will communicate with others to manage traffic, while passengers benefit from a range of new services and entertainment. High-end cars already have around four times more lines of code than a F-35 fighter jet — twice that of the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

The leaders in AV are US tech firms, notably Google and Apple, as well as Tesla and the Chinese firm Baidu. European carmakers are behind the pack, but attempting to catch-up through acquisitions and strategic alliances. Ford and Volkswagen have made an agreement to share AV technology; Fiat-Chrysler have aligned themselves to Google; Audi, BMW and Daimler (Mercedes-Benz) have bought a digital mapping company. Daimler has also been working with Uber; BMW with Intel and Israeli firm Mobileye, and Renault-Nissan has partnered with Microsoft.

Technology is changing how cars are used and could impact the trade war. Ridesharing will challenge the concept of the private car — and Europe is trailing here also. In 2017 it was estimated that 338 million people used ridesharing ser-vices like Uber, Lyft and China’s Didi Chuxin. That growth could become exponential when companies introduce AVs dedicated to ridesharing. By 2030 it is estimated that one in 10 cars will be shared. Euro-pean carmakers are scrambling to join forces with former competitors and ridesharing platforms to make up for lost ground: BMW and Daimler have merged their ride-sharing divisions, and Volvo is working with Uber.

Trade war: electrification

Another big technological disruptor to European carmakers is electrification. Electric cars are not new, but recent improvements in batteries, drivetrains and public charging infrastructure have started to make electric cars a viable alternative. China is the leader here, with 400 electric car options on the market; in Europe there are six. The biggest electric carmaker in the world is China’s BYD. China, Japan, and South Korea are leaders in battery production. Tesla has a Gigafactory in Nevada, and one under construction near Shanghai.

Europe is currently at the mercy of Asian suppliers. Volkswagen and BMW have announced plans to produce their own batteries, in co-operation with Goldman Sachs, Ikea, and a small Swedish battery pro-ducer Northvolt — but the first examples will not be ready until 2022.

The transition to electric cars will also have an impact on the workforce. Electric cars are less complicat-ed, requiring fewer workers. A typical electric engine has just 200 components; a diesel engine has 1400. By 2030, as a result, it is estimated that 300,000 manufacturing jobs will be lost in Europe. More will be lost indirectly. The industry currently employs 13.3 million people, 3.4 million of them in manufacturing.

European carmakers are feeling the pressure. The CEO of Volkswagen, Herbert Diess, recently said that the European car industry could mirror the demise of that in Detroit. That seems an extreme scenario, as European carmakers are now making swift, bold decisions. The industry has a long history, and is de-termined to have a bright future.

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